The Government seemed to be in no mood for negotiations. In this initiative, he expected to garner the support of the Muslims, who were nurturing anti British sentiments, on the Turkey-issue. Saifuddin Kitchlew Punjab , Vallabhai Patel, C. Several Hindu leaders expressed their sympathy with the Muslim claim. Lastly the Government could realize their utter failure to cow down the people through the use of repressive measures. On 10th March, 1920, Mahatma Gandhi issued a manifesto elaborating his doctrine of non-violent and non-cooperation duly approved by the Congress.
Some other reasons were the Rowlatt act and the Khilafat movement, which led to the joining of many Muslim leaders to the non-violence proposal of Mahatma Gandhi. The twisted terms of the peace treaty that the British signed with Turkey were interpreted by many Indian Muslim leaders as a betrayal of the promise given by the British to them. The violent mob put the thana to fire in which the policemen died. Many lawyers gave up their practice, some of whom were Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Besides visits of members of the British royal family was decided to be boycotted.
The Calcutta Congress Committee unanimously decided to start civil disobedience and entrusted all powers on Chittaranjan Das, thus making him a Dictator both in name and in fact. But none of them got a remedy. Not only the Non-Cooperation movement asked to boycott the goods but also there was an appeal to the people to let go the titles. Das, Zakir Hussain, Lala LajpatRai, and Subhash Bose. An overview on Non-Cooperation Movement Before moving on to how the Non-cooperation movement was called off? In Bihar and Orissa picketing of liquor shops often led to violent act such as snatching away of liquor bottles and assaulting the purchaser and burning liquor shops. This period also witnessed the coming into being of numerous national educational institutions for the benefit of the students. In his sense of sympathy towards the Government he even advocated to raise volunteers to be recruited as soldiers to fight on behalf of the English in the First World War.
The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms with their ill- conceived scheme of Dyarchy failed to satisfy the rising demand of the Indians for self-government. The repressive measures was not only confined to Calcutta but was followed with relentless vigour in other provinces where troubles were brewing or apprehended. Das gave up their legal profession. Gandhi in a solemn speech in the meeting of the central Khilafat Committee in the night of 2 June said that he knew full well that the Muslim realized that the non-cooperation was the only remedy now left to India. After the movement was suspended, the Government decided to deal with Gandhi strongly. So, the Ali brothers were arrested for sedition. The Gandhi magic did not work there.
Police adopted retaliatory measures and used firing. On this decision, the country was first shocked them filled with gloom. The freedom struggle assumed an all India character under his impeccable leadership. An interim Government was formed headed by Jawaharlal Nehru. Both intensified widespread discontent against the British Government. These words of Gandhi appealed everyone and all became blind after him. But instead India was paid back through repressive measures by the use of Rowlatt Laws.
With the Non-Cooperation Movement, nationalist sentiments reached every nook and corner of the country and politicised every strata of population—the artisans, peasants, students, urban poor, women, traders etc. In 1924, the caliphate was abolished. As directed by the Congress people of Bardoli in Gujarat did not pay Government revenue. A programme of surrender of titles, the boycott of schools, courts and councils, the boycott of foreign goods, the promotion maintenance of a Hindu-Muslim unity and strict non-violence was adopted. Boycott of Legislative Councils; there were some differences over this as some leaders like C. Fourthly, all had extended their faith in the Congress with a hope that this organization could direct the national stream to gain freedom.
Although Muslim sentiments were a manifestation of the spread of a wider anti-imperialist feeling, the national leaders failed to raise the religious political consciousness of the Muslims to a level of secular political consciousness. In the first phase January—March 1920 , Gandhi conducted a nationwide tour along with the Ali brothers to propagate his ideals and resolutions behind the movement. The visit of the Prince of Wales was boycotted too. Similar incidents were also reported at Dharwar Mysore State and many other places. It was launched on 1st August 1920 by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
The Central Khilafat Committee of the Muslims decided to accept the non-cooperation policy of Gandhi. Dyarchy was introduced, some powers were transferred to Indian Ministers but the real powers were however retained in the hands of the government and his officers. He was immediately arrested on 10th March, 1922. Due to these repressive measures many volunteers became nervous and the movement became almost paralyzed. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minster of free India and continued his term till 1964.
No other single incident in the history of modern India caused as much hostility towards the British Government as the Jallianwalla Bagh tragedy. Among the Hindu leaders who attended the meeting were Gandhi, Motilal Nehru, Lajpat Rai, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Bipin Chandra Pal, Madanmohan Malaviya, Satyamurti, Rajgopalachari, Jawaharlal Nehru and Chintamani. The Non-Cooperation began with fasting and prayer. According to Gandhi, swaraj meant establishment of self rule within British Empire with complete freedom to secede any time. During the movement, the participants were supposed to work for Hindu-Muslim unity and for removal of untouchability, all the time remaining non-violent. The adoption by the Congress of the non-cooperation movement initiated earlier by the Khilafat Committee gave it a new energy, and the years 1921 and 1922 saw an unprecedented popular upsurge. Motilal Nehru, the father of Jawaharlal Nehru and C.