Taken too literally, Theories X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. Morse, Internal Organizational Patterning and Sense of Competence Motivation Boston, Harvard Business School, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1969. It can create conditions such that he is encouraged and enabled to seek such satisfactions for himself, or it can thwart him by failing to create those conditions. However, McGregor asserts that neither approach is appropriate since the foundations of Theory X are incorrect. Formal characteristics, which could be used to judge the fit between the kind of task being worked on and the formal practices of the organization. Instead, McGregor feels that an approach located in the middle would be the most effective implementation of Theory X. They were created by while he was working at the in the 1950s, and developed further in the 1960s.
The theories concentrate on two various models of potential motivation that is implemented by the managers across human resources management, organizational communication, organizational development and organizational behavior. On the basis of above assumptions, it is concluded that the management is held responsible for organising resources, for the firm, with the aim of economic gain. The average human being does not inherently dislike work… Man will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed. This was appropriate for a laboratory in which a great variety of disciplines and skills were present and individual projects were important to solve technological problems. Douglas McGregor, revisited: managing the human side of the enterprise. Managers must closely supervise and control through reward and punishment. Theory X - The Hard Approach and Soft Approach Under Theory X, management approaches can range from a hard approach to a soft approach.
According to this theory, pure work motivation consists of financial incentives. Theory X In Theory X, summarizes the traditional view of management in a number of characteristic assumptions in which autocratic leadership style, close supervision and the hierarchical principle are the key elements. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked. These assumptions serve as powerful behavioral models reflected in the way an is. This managerial style is more effective when used in a workforce that is not essentially motivated to perform.
In general, Theory X style managers believe their employees are less intelligent, lazier, and work solely for a sustainable income. He earned a from Rangoon Institute of Technology, a from in 1932, then earned an and in psychology from in 1933 and 1935 respectively. A mix of practices which ensure a healthy blend of systems and the freedom to perform at the work place is likely to motivate the employees more. Further, details of two distinct theories, i. Relations with others: The people at Akron perceived a great deal of similarity among themselves in background, prior work experiences, and approaches for tackling job-related problems. Giving employees a larger role in an organization makes it more likely that their individual needs will align with the organization's needs. Because of his human characteristics of dislike of work, most people must be coerced, , directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate efforts towards the achievement of organizational objectives.
Make your own animated videos and animated presentations for free. Theory Y invites renewal processes and motivation can be traced back to the style of leadership. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives. In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. McGregors theory is also from are one of those theories that comprise much influence on both the management and the employee. Once those needs have been satisfied, the motivation is gone.
Influence A good manager will realize that leadership affects employee behaviour. Set your own objectives to meet their organisational aims and agree these with the managers; be seen to be self-starting, self-motivating, self-disciplined and well-organised - the more the X theory manager sees you are managing yourself and producing results, the less they'll feel the need to do it for you. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. The hard approach results in hostility, purposely low-output, and hard-line union demands. Furthermore, most people prefer to be treated this way, so they can avoid responsibility. McGregor recognized that X-Type workers are in fact usually the minority, and yet in mass organizations, such as large scale production environment, X Theory management may be required and can be unavoidable. Take responsibility and are motivated to fulfill the goals they are given.
They responded to quick feedback concerning the quality and service that the plant was providing. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, in a Theory X environment it may be the only way. Theory X assumes that employees dislike work, are not ambitious, want to avoid responsibility, dislike change, and are self-centered. Likewise, he also contributed much to the development of the management and motivational theory. Their logical capabilities should be fully utilized.
Lest we be accused of the same error, we are saying only that all people have a need to feel competent; in this one way they are similar. This article describes the McGregor Theory X and Theory Y of. While our major purpose in this article is to explore how the fit between task and organizational characteristics is related to motivation, we first want to explore more fully the organizational characteristics of these units, so the reader will better understand what we mean by a fit between task and organization and how it can lead to more effective behavior. He referred to these two perceptions as Theory X and Theory Y. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized.
The expenditure of physical and mental efforts in work is as natural as play or rest. Unlike, decentralisation of authority is presumed in theory Y, which involves employees participation in management and decision-making. There are two theories, i. This ensures work stays efficient, productive, and in-line with company standards. Control Tight Lenient Authority Centralized Decentralized Self motivation Absent Present Focuses on Psychological needs and Security needs Social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.
The problem of achieving a fit among task, organization, and people is something we know less about. Your rating is more than welcome or share this article via Social media! But when he published it had great impact, like. Giving employees more authority, broadening the scope of their jobs, and allowing them to have a say in decision-making can all motivate employees to work hard for the organization. This led companies to focus on how their employees were motivated, managed, and led, creating a Theory Y management style which focuses on the drive for individual self — fulfillment. They also perceived the degree of coordination of effort among colleagues to be very high. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible.