Popes were not in Rome, but rather in Avignon and South France. An ecumenical council, the Council of Constance, addressed the issue of heresy. There had already been an English response to the impact of foreign influence in English ecclesiastical affairs as reflected in the Statute of Provisors 1351 which forbade papal interference in elections to ecclesiastical posts and the Statutes of Praemunire 1353, 1365 which prohibited appeals to courts outside the kingdom. The ashes were scattered in the nearby River Swift. His restless, probing mind was complemented by a quick temper and a sustained capacity for invective. © Copyright 1997-2016 - Greatsite Marketing. Political activities and theories On April 7, 1374, appointed Wycliffe to the rectory of Lutterworth in place of Ludgershall, and about this time the theologian began to show an interest in politics.
The grace of predestination is the bond whereby the body of the church and each of its members is indissolubly joined with the head. On June 5, 1415, John Hus was tried for the first time, and for that purpose was transferred to the Franciscan monastery, where he spent the last weeks of his life. Wycliffe advised his local lord, John of Gaunt, to tell Parliament not to comply. He spent the next two years in feverish literary activity, composing a number of treatises. However, in a small Bohemian village, someone else was stirring. He had insisted that dominion was founded in grace. However, if the bible is in fact the word of God, and God has spoken, then we need to know what He has said despite what our personal preferences might be.
The witnesses for the prosecution were heard, but Hus was refused an advocate for his defense. His position on the Eucharist was becoming that issue which would sort out his true disciples from mere respectful adherents. Almost exactly 100 years later, in 1517, nailed his famous 95 Theses of Contention a list of 95 issues of heretical theology and crimes of the Roman Catholic Church into the church door at Wittenberg. The Bible was their only authority, and faith in God and His Word sustained these holy men as they gave up their lives at the stake. At the place of execution he knelt down, spread out his hands, and prayed aloud. But all throughout the dark ages God had small groups of people that kept the flicker of light burning.
One of them was John Wycliffe 1330-84 , a theologian at Oxford University who spoke of scripture as being primary in authority. And thus the ashes of Wycliffe are the emblem of his doctrine which now is dispersed the world over. At first, he had no intentions of changing the churches traditional doctrines. Huss decided to go knowing that it would be dangerous and risky. Far from having given us the Scriptures, it is you who have hidden them from us; it is you who burn those who teach them; and if you could, you would burn the Scriptures themselves.
The assembly of church leaders convicted Wycliffe anyway, but the favor of the courts and the Parliament kept him from being condemned. At this time, Oxford was the leading university, and Wycliffe was the leading scholar of Oxford. Thus the ashes of Wycliffe are the emblem of his doctrine, which is now dispersed the world over. From persecution, Tyndale fled to London, where for a time he pursued his course undisturbed. Meanwhile, in 1415, the Council had considered, and condemned as heretical, the teachings of the Prague priest Jan Hus and he was burned at the stake in Constance. If anyone should keep such taxes, it should be local English authorities.
Neither must his ingenuousness be forgotten. This was in attempt to keep the clergy accountable to a high standard of living. Many were rejecting clerical wealth, including Wycliffe, who favored a return to Christian asceticism. Proud and mistaken as he sometimes was, he gives an overall impression of sincerity. Throughout his life, God had given John Wycliffe the necessary training and skills so that he could translate the Bible into the English language. The bishop of Lodi delivered an oration on the duty of eradicating heresy; then some theses of Hus and Wycliffe and a report of his trial were read. Through his study, he believed that the Church of God was not a visible organization here on earth, but was made up of God's elect, or in simpler terms, those God had chosen.
The condemnation of the forty-five articles of John Wyclif, decreed by the doctors, is irrational and unjust and badly done and the reason alleged by them is feigned, namely that none of them is catholic but each one is either heretical or erroneous or scandalous. Wycliffe was forced to appear before the Catholic bishops in the first half of the year 1377 to give an account of his doctrine. For example, he wanted Mass said in Czech and to have Bibles translated into the people's language. Through this group and many others, the teaching of Wycliffe and Hus still exists today in an organization that bears Wycliffe's name. It deposed both popes and elected Alexander V as the legitimate pontiff though the other popes, repudiating this election, continued to rule their factions. He was said to have had a hot temper.
Courtenay was quick now to seize this initiative obtained at Blackfriars. This caused Tyndale to seek refuge in Germany, where he started printing the English New Testament. He lost some support in 1381 when he denied the doctrine of transubstantiation, that in the Eucharist the bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ. Bohemians were furious with the execution and repudiated the council; over the next several years, a coalition of Hussites, radical Taborites, and others refused to submit to the authority of the Holy Roman emperor or the church and fended off three military assaults. All rightly proclaimed that neither popes, councils, or kings could control the conscience in matters of faith. Reading the writings of further influenced Jan Hus in an anti-Catholic direction. It did not take place there, but in the palace of the archbishops at Prague, Hus being thus excluded from participation.
In 1428, in attempts to renounce the influence of Wycliffe, the church dug up his bones, burned them, and scattered them in the River Swift. His teachings attracted a large number of followers and caused a division in the Bohemian clergy. The churches of the city were put under the ban, and the interdict was pronounced against Prague, but without result. Hus agreed with Wycliffe that the pope and Church officials held absolute authority only when their views reflected the life of Christ and the scriptures. Wycliffe began translating the scriptures into common English.
If you would like to read a more complete history of the reformation, the book, The Great Controversy by E. John Wycliffe was responsible for the very first translation of the entire Bible into the English language. Wycliffe preached acceptably in London in support of moderate disendowment, but the alliance with Gaunt led to the displeasure of his superiors, and he was summoned to appear before them in February 1377. Although his life was spared, Wycliffe was declared a heretic and expelled from Oxford. It also condemned an Englishman whose writings had influenced Hus. Resultó, sin embargo, que la defensa de los derechos reales en la controversia con fue para John Wycliffe el punto de partida de una crítica cada vez más vasta y profunda, la cual, exacerbada por las exigencias de los papas relativas a su supremacía y por las riquezas excesivas de la Iglesia, acabó por afectar también a puntos de la confesión, la eucaristía y la primacía de la sede romana.