Da Montefeltro showed reluctance, but Boniface promised him absolution in advance, even if his counsel were to prove wrong. In the second circle the lustful were punished by having their spirits blown about by an unceasing wind. But here await me, and comfort thy dejected spirit and feed on good hope, for I will not leave thee in the nether world. Virgil himself resides here, and has been given only a brief leave to guide Dante. He adds that the she-wolf's presence necessitates the use of a different path to ascend the hill; he offers to serve as Dante's guide. In the third, the simonists were punished by being stuck upside down in rock with their feet on fire. The second reference is the actual descent into the underworld.
He denied them food, and when the sons died, Ugolino, in his hunger, was driven to eat the flesh of their corpses. Dante and Virgil now descend into the Second Circle of Hell, smaller in size than the First Circle but greater in punishment. Functionaries: Geryon next canto , Virgil. Virgil alerts Dante to the presence of additional souls here, which remain invisible to him as they lie completely submerged in the Styx—these are the Sullen, those who muttered and sulked under the light of the sun. Dante feels comforted to hear that his beloved Beatrice has gone to Heaven and cares so much for him. Each of Lucifer's mouths holds a sinner—the three greatest sinners of human history, all Traitors to a Benefactor. An enormous noise from behind scatters the Furies.
He behaves more like an old clerk who has to do an unpleasant job because of the order of the superior, than like the ominous psychopomp. Suddenly, the horrible storm starts and the flash of the blood-red light makes Dante lose consciousness. As they near the entrance, a host of fallen angels cries out. He adds that the she-wolf's presence means that a different path must be taken; he offers to serve as Dante's guide, and tells him that the only way he can get back to the right path is to travel through Hell and Purgatory and finally reach Heaven. Punishment: Sit in desert in burning sand and rained on by fire, lost individuality just like money is all the same, except for family emblems in coin purses they are forced to wear, forced to look only at the emblems. In the left and right mouths hang Brutus and Cassius, who murdered Julius Caesar in the Roman Senate.
The mouths chew their victims, constantly tearing the traitors to pieces but never killing them. The figure is Lucifer, Dis, Satan—no one name does justice to his terrible nature. The leaves have to die and the sinners have to go to Hell. Scabs cover them from head to foot; they scratch at them furiously and incessantly. The Inferno follows the wanderings of the poet Dante as he strays off the rightful and straight path of moral truth and gets lost in a dark wood. In the ninth pouch, Dante witnesses the sowers of scandal and schism being disemboweled by a demon with a sword, healed, and punished again—eternally. Environment: plain of graveyard, tombs cemetery.
In the tenth pouch, four different kinds of falsifiers are punished. Returning in despair to the dark valley, Dante sees a human form in the woods, which soon reveals itself to be the spirit, or shade, of the great Roman poet Virgil. Virgil tells the damaged tree-soul to tell his story to Dante so that Dante may spread the story on Earth. At one point, Boniface asked him for advice on how to conquer Palestrina formerly called Penestrino, it served as the fortress of the Ghibelline Colonna family. We soon learn that all human sins are divided into three big categories: incontinence or lacking self-control , violence, and fraud. Some of the most important references, however, are the most obvious ones that are easily overlooked simply because of the fact that they are so blatant. The eighth circle contains ten pouches, each containing different types of sinners.
What he thought was a city with towers turned out to be a number of giants, including and those who had rebelled against the Olympians. Contrapasso: both bad on opposite end of the spectrum, unbalanced lifestyle and they must forever work against each other to balance out. Sinners: Treachery- betrayer of trust and deceptive action. Though Virgil encourages Dante to go inside without hesitation, saying that he is under the divine protection and no dangers of Hell will threaten him. They look as devoid of will as autumn leaves thrown by the wind to the ground, one by one, but this metaphor has the other sense too: the autumn is natural law. The personality of Virgil can also serve as a metaphor that opens up further, when the travellers reach Limbo.
But when an envious group of scheming courtiers blackened his name with lies, he felt such shame that he took his own life. Worse than any violence, however, is the sin of fraud, which breaks the trust of a man and therefore most directly opposes the great virtue of love. Farinata confirms that, as part of their punishment, the Heretics can see only distant things. Dante talks to the glutton Ciacco, a famous Florentine, who prophesies disaster for Florence. Soon as my Leader and I were in the boat, the antique prow goes its way, cutting more of the water than it is wont with others. In the second circle, lustful sinners are tossed around by endless storms.
Malacoda adds that a nearby ridge provides an alternate route. Then they come to the Acheron, an infernal river, where the boatman Charon ferries the damned souls into Hell. As he climbs, however, he encounters three angry beasts in succession—a leopard, a lion, and a she-wolf—which force him to turn back. Virgil and Dante pass through the gate of Dis and enter the Sixth Circle of Hell. This one was an arrogant person in the world; no goodness is there that adorns his memory; therefore is his shade so furious here. Some of the sinners of the Third Zone, the Falsifiers of Coins, mingle among these souls.
Chiron provides one named Nessus, on whose back Dante climbs. Dante asks him if anyone has made this journey past the gate before and Virgil tells him that he did once before, when he was sent to fetch a soul from the deepest, darkest circle of hell. The poetry of Canto 5 begins with a description of Minos's duties. According to Virgil, the impact caused the lands of the Southern Hemisphere to retreat to the North, leaving only the Mountain of Purgatory in the water of the South. When Dante speaks of having strayed from the right path, the reader should not assume that Dante has committed any specific sin or crime.
Punishment: Frozen in lake cocytus, and chained as giants. On the way, they happen upon a sinner whom Dante angrily recognizes as Filippo Argenti. An earthquake leaves Dante unconscious, and when he wakes up they are in the first circle of Hell, Limbo. He also met Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti, the father of his friend Guido. Eventually pursued by irate devils, Dante and Virgil quickly went to safety in the sixth pouch of Malebolge, where hypocrites were made to wear heavy lead robes. Lesson Summary Let's take a few moments to review what we've learned about Canto 1 in Dante's Inferno, which serves as the introduction both to The Inferno and to the entire Divine Comedy. Environment: Cold lake with wind, frozen.